Step 10: Prepare for implementation

This step begins with reviewing the Instructional Strategy (see Box 17) that you developed in Step 8. Now it is time to prepare for implementation of the learning intervention according to the instructional strategy.


  1. Make a plan and timeline for implementation. The implementation plan may include:
    • roles and responsibilities: what will persons at various levels do to organize, implement and support the learning intervention?
    • resources needed: what training materials, references, equipment, supplies, audiovisuals and other resources are needed for the implementation?
    • orientation: how will decision makers, managers, supervisors and others be informed about the learning intervention and their roles and responsibilities?
    • facilitator training: how will faculty, tutors, instructors, trainers, clinical preceptors and other facilitators of the learning process be selected and then trained? Facilitators may need training in technical content and also how they are expected to carry out the intervention (e.g., training skills, use of materials, orientation to the training approach).
    • training site preparation and maintenance: how will classrooms, clinical facilities or other training sites be selected, prepared and equipped?
    • monitoring: how will the learning intervention and learners be monitored to ensure the implementation is going smoothly and to identify any adjustments that may need to be made during the learning intervention?
    • follow-up: how will learners be followed-up to ensure transfer of learning?
    • budget: how will the funding (see information collected in Step 3) be managed?
  2. Obtain needed learning resources. Learning resources may include printed materials, equipment, supplies, audiovisuals, anatomic models and other resources for carrying out the learning intervention. (See also Step 9, #3)
  3. Orient, solicit input and generate commitment from decision makers, managers and supervisors. Consider including a stakeholder orientation about:
    • the learning interventions
    • the implementation plan and timeline
    • their roles and responsibilities in supporting the learning intervention, learners and the transfer of learning. (See Box 19)
  4. Select and train facilitators (e.g., faculty, tutors, instructors, trainers, clinical preceptors). Identify and apply facilitator selection criteria (e.g., proficient providers, commitment/positive attitude toward learners and clients, good interpersonal skills). Training of facilitators should include:
    • Skills and knowledge in the subject matter they will be training others to perform
    • Training skills they need to impart the technical content to their learners:
      • competency-based training techniques and trainer facilitation skills

        Examples include experiential learning techniques, effective communication and presentation skills, behavior modeling, coaching, skills assessment, supportive feedback, practicing skills in simulated environment before practicing with clients, assessment of competency.
    • transfer of learning to on-the-job performance
      • "Transfer of learning" is being able to apply learned skills and knowledge in the work setting. Transfer of learning can be facilitated by a series of activities before, during and after the learning intervention, as illustrated in Box 19: The transfer of learning matrix. The more items in the matrix that can be implemented, the stronger the transfer of learning operation will be. These activities can be adapted for any type of learning intervention.
    • use of the learning materials
      • The instructors and trainers will need to be oriented to the new learning materials and how to use them. The more familiar they are with the learning process, activities and materials, the better they will be able to help learners achieve the learning objectives, modifying the curriculum as needed for their learners.
  5. Select, prepare and equip learning facilities.

    Selection of clinical training sites is usually based on the following criteria:
    • sufficient client load for clinical skills practice
    • adequate space to accommodate the learners
    • sufficient supplies and equipment
    • receptive staff prepared to receive the learners
    • application of current service guidelines during practice
    • similar facility/level of care as where learners will practice
    • availability of meals and lodging if necessary.
    Sites for classroom training and a skills development lab should have:
    • adequate space and furniture to allow for varying seating arrangements for interactive lectures, group work, simulated skills practice, etc.
    • sufficient supplies and equipment in working order
    • proper ventilation and adequate lighting.
    Preparation of learning facilities involves:
    • bringing sites in line with the key criteria above regarding space, supplies and equipment, if necessary
    • site-based orientation of administrative and clinical staff.

Helpful Hints

Key Companion Resources for Steps 10 and 11 of Learning for Performance
Transfer of learning: a guide for strengthening the performance of health care workers. Available Here

Training Works! What you need to know about managing, designing, delivering and evaluating group-based training. Available Here

Preservice Implementation Guide: a process for strengthening preservice education. Available Here

Effective Teaching: a guide for educating healthcare providers. Available Here

Two excellent resources on how to train trainers in competency-based training techniques are available from JHPIEGO.

Clinical Training Skills for Reproductive Health Professionals

Advanced Training Skills for Reproductive Health Professionals

Box 19: The transfer of the learning matrix
Before Learning During Learning After Learning
  • Understand the performance need
  • Participate in any additional assessments required for training
  • Influence selection of learners
  • Communicate with trainers about the learning intervention
  • Help learners create a preliminary action plan
  • Support and encourage learners
  • Participate in or observe training
  • Protect learners from interruptions
  • Plan post-training debriefing
  • Provide supplies and space and schedule opportunities for learners to practice
  • Monitor progress of action plans with learners and revise as needed
  • Conduct post-training debriefing with learners and co-workers
  • Be a coach and role model--provide encouragement and feedback
  • Evaluate learners' performance
  • Stay in contact with trainers
  • Validate and supplement the results of the performance needs assessment
  • Use instructional design and learning principles to develop or adapt the course
  • Send the course syllabus, objectives and pre-course learning activities in advance
  • Provide work-related exercises and appropriate job aids
  • Give immediate and clear feedback
  • Help learners develop realistic action plans
  • Conduct training evaluations
  • Conduct follow-up activites in a timely manner
  • Help strengthen supervisors' skills
  • Facilitate review of action plans with supervisors and learners
  • Share observations with supervisors and learners
  • Maintain communication with supervisors and learners
  • Participate in needs assessments and planning
  • Review course objectives and expectations and prepare preliminary action plans
  • Begin establishing a support network
  • Complete pre-course learning activities
  • Participate actively in the course
  • Develop realistic action plans for transferring learning
  • Meet with supervisor to review action plan
  • Apply new skills and implement action plan
  • Use job aids
  • Network with other learners and trainers for support
  • Monitor your own performance
Co-workers and others
  • Participate in needs assessments and discussion of the training's intended impact
  • Ask learners to bring back key learning points to share with the work group
  • Complete learners' reassigned work duties
  • Participate in learning exercises at the request of learners
  • Be supportive of learners' accomplishments
Adapted from: PRIME II and JHPIEGO Corporation. Transfer of learning: a guide for strengthening the performance of health care workers. Chapel Hill, NC: Intrah, 2002. Available Here